Titanium is an element of the periodic table. Its symbol is Ti and its atomic number is 22. The metal has many properties like a very high level of corrosion resistance that make it an important element in many fields, for example in surgical and medical applications.

Titanium crystal bar.
Titanium crystal bar.
Image source:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titanium

What titanium is…

The titanium votive figurine symbolized ancient Greek Titans.
Discovered by William Gregor,1791
Image source:https://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/22/titanium

Titanium (Ti)is a chemical element of Group 4 (IVb) of the periodic table. It has a silvery-grey colouration. Titanium is Earth’s ninth most abundant element. It can be found inigneous rocks和他们的沉积物。它也存在于植物,animals; natural waters, deep-sea dredgings; meteorites and stars. Titanium is a component ofilmenite,rutile,spheneand is present intitanatesand manyiron ores. The principal mined ores are located in Western Australia, Norway, Canada and Ukraine. Substantial deposits ofrutilein North America and South Africa also contribute to the supply of titanium. World production of metals is approximately 90.000 tonnes per year, and titanium dioxide counts 4.3 million tonnes per year.

When is it first discovered?

Martin Heinrich Klaproth.

Martin Heinrich Klaproth.

Image source:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titanium

Titanium was first identified in1791by the ReverendWilliam Gregor. In1795,Martin Heinrich Klaproth, a German scientist, examined a red mineral identified as Schörl from Hungary. It is a form ofrutile(TiO2) and the scientist realised it was the oxide of a previously unknown element which he labelled as titanium. In1910,Mattew A. Hunter, an employee of General Electric in the USA, madepure titanium metalby heating titanium tetrachloride and sodium metal.


  • Pure titanium isductile
  • It can be polished to a high brilliance
  • It has a verylow electricalandthermal conductivityand isparamagnetic(weakly attracted to a magnet)
  • It hasexcellent strengthandcorrosion resistance
  • It isinsoluble in waterbutsoluble in concentrated acids
  • The best solvents arehydrofluoric acidor other acids with fluoride ions.
Pure titanium metal
Pure titanium metal. ByStan R. Seagle
Image source:https://www.britannica.com/technology/titanium-processing


Titanium(IV) oxide is produced on a commerce scale by either the“sulfate process”or the“chloride process”, both of which use the mineralilmeniteas a starting element. Pure titanium preparation is complex because of itsreactivity. Titanium cannot be obtained by the common method of reducing theoxidewithcarbon. The element is pretty reactive tooxygenandnitrogenat high temperatures.


  • Titanium has also been utilized as adeoxidizerin steel and as an alloying addition in many varieties of steels to degrade grain size, instainless steelto reducecarboncontent, inaluminiumto purify grain size, and incopperto produce crystallisation.
  • These alloys are employed in aircraft,spacecraftandmissilesdue to their low density and ability to resist extreme temperatures. They are also utilized in golf clubs, laptops, bicycles and crutches.
  • Power plant condensersutilise titanium pipes because of their corrosion resistance, so the metal is used indesalination plantsand to protect the hulls of ships, submarines and other structures exposed to seawater.
  • Titanium attaches well to bones, so it is used insurgical applicationssuch as joint replacements and tooth implants.
  • Titanium(IV) oxideis the most used type of titanium on the market. It is extensively used as apigmentin paint, plastics, lacquers and paper. It is also a goodinfrared radiation reflector.
  • Titanium(IV) oxide is used insunscreensbecause it blocks UV light from reaching the skin.
  • Pure titanium oxide is relatively clear, so it is used to producetitania, an artificial gemstone.
  • 四氯化钛(TiCl4),另一个化合物,has been used to makesmoke screens.
Titanium femur replacement, England, 1981
Titanium femur replacement, England, 1981
Image source:https://wellcomecollection.org/works/n766q9sy

Info sources:https://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/22/titanium

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