Iron Agecan be framed from1200 B.C. to 600 B.C. when the discovery of iron led to many developments in various cultures and societies, causingBronze Agecivilizations downfall and new kingdom formations, revolutionizing warfare, agriculture, writing, vehicles construction, building, and definitely contributed to shape the “new age”.
Iron Age time coordinates
TheIron Agestarted between1200 B.C. and 600 B.C.following theStone AgeandBronze Age. During this period, people in Europe, Asia, and Africa started manufacturing tools and weapons fromironandsteel. TheIron Ageis conventionally identified by the change frombronzetoironandsteel. The shift occurred at different periods in different locations, as the technology spread. For example, inMesopotamia, the Iron Age began in 900 BC. InIndia, the Iron Age began at about 1200 BC; inCentral Europeat about 800 BC; and inChinaat about 300 BC. Around 500 BC, theNubians, who had studied from theAssyriansthe application of iron, were expelled fromEgyptand became themajor producers and exporters of iron.
Iron Age facts
TheIron Agebegan around 1200 B.C. with the downfall of several famousBronze Age civilizations, including theMycenaean societyin Greece and therefore theHittite Empirein Turkey. Ancient cities likeTroyandGazawere destroyed, trade routes were lost and literacy declined throughout the region. The cause for the collapse of those Bronze Age kingdoms remains unclear.Earthquakes, famine, sociopolitical unrest and invasionby nomadic tribes may have contributed. Some experts believe that a pause in trade routes may have caused shortages of thecopperortinaccustomed to make bronze around this point.
Metalsmithsmay have turned toironas an alternate. Iron was tougher than bronze, so Iron Age people could createsharp toolslike swords and spears. They also made收集设备from iron, likeplough(Ard) andsickles. Iron tools played a very important role within thedevelopment of cultures and societiesand therefore the establishment of kingdoms. The discovery oflimonite(a mineral made from a combination of hydrous ferric oxides) makes smithery possible. Farming tools were improved and also the simple wooden plough was replaced with aniron-tipped plough(Ard). It made agriculture easier and resulted in an exceedingly high yield of crops.Woodpole Lathe inventionallowed the woodworkers to create more practical and useful items fromwood,like bowls and buckets.
Iron smelting and early metallurgy
The earliest iron artifacts are nine smallbeadsdated to3200 BC, discovered in tombs atGerzeh,Lower Egypt. These tools have been identified asmeteoric ironcast by thorough hammering. Meteoric iron is a uniqueiron-nickel alloy. It was used by several ancient communities thousands of years before the Iron Age. This iron, being in its original metallic state, doesn’t require smelting of ores. In addition to specially designedfurnaces, ancient iron production required complex procedures development in impurity removal; the regulation of the admixture of carbon and hot-working to reach a useful balance of hardness and strength insteel.
Iron Age tools
- Ardwas a scratch plough with the pointed iron tip
- Iron sicklesfor harvesting crops
- Coulterwas an iron-made farming tool used for breaking the ground
- Ploughsharewas a farming tool used for making uniform rows in the field
- Lances and spearswere long wooden weapons with iron tips
- Rotary quernwas a machine for grinding grains
- Potters Wheelfor making pottery
- Wood lathewas a machine like structure for shaping wood and other things into objects
- Iron rudderwas used on the ship to make it steer on its own
- Iron chiselwas a tool used for cutting wood, stones, metals, and other hard things
- Cooking Tools: pots, cauldrons, vessels
- Hunting Tools:swords, daggers, lances, and spears
In the Iron Age,forgerswould have used three basic tools for making objects from iron:Hammar, anvil(a heavy iron block used for hammering and shaping metal),tong(a rod or pillar-like structure for holding the hot metal).