号自由era was one of the key figures in the Italian Rationalism. Considered a protagonist of Italian modern architecture, he’d become the protagonist of several projects built under the Fascist regime.
Important Friendships: a Link with Fascism
号自由era was born inVilla Lagarinain Trentino, Italy. After graduating fromParma’s Institute of Artfirst, then from Rome’sScuola Superiore di Architettura, he came into contact withFuturism, leading to his founding M.I.A.R. or “Italian Movement for Rational Architecture”, where he acted as its secretary. This group, a rival to the fascist architecture – oriented organizationGruppo Sette, was led, during Fascism, by Libera’s politically astute choices: he established a close working relationship with high ranking officials of the regime, in order to control and funnel funding into public construction programs and commissions. In no small part thanks to this, he attained a prolific career, designing many notable buildings this period, enstablishing himself as a key figure in the internationalRationalist movement.Congress Arenain Rome is a perfect example of Libera’s notable ability to design ambiguously in a spare, metaphysical language, existing betweenModernismandNeo-classicism. Other renowed designs areCasa Malaparteand theRegional Governmentbuilding for the region of Trentino, continuing his career after the fall of the Fascist regime until his death, in1963.
Between Futurism and Classicism
TheRationalist理想在意大利繁荣下二十年啊f Fascist regime, from the 1920s to the 1940s. Two separate groups challenged each other in an architectural battle for recognition: theGruppo 7and the (Libera founded)MIAR. The latter movement sought a middle ground between the glories of theEnlightenment, embodied by theNeo-classicalstyle, and the straightforward violence ofFuturism, anavant-gardemovement fascinated by the industrial architecture. The new tenets, in accordance to the regime’s pretense, werecontrol,logicandrationality.
Palazzo Gualinoin Turin was one of the first Italian rationalist buildings, designed byGino Levi-MontalciniandGiuseppe Pagano. Other exemplary works includeCasa del FascioinComo,Medaglia d’Ororoom at theItalian Aeronautical ShowinMilanand theFascist Trades Union BuildinginComo. Moreover, theRationalistsenjoyed some official commissions from the very junta of Mussolini. Large projects arose all over Rome, including theUniversity of Romeand theEsposizione Universale Roma(EUR) district. TheEURfeatures monumental, monolith-like buildings, trying to evoke the same weight as ancient Roman architecture, yet condensed in an essential form, revealing strong geometric, modern shapes.
This institutional space was design byAlberto Liberato hosts the1942 Universal Exposition in Rome. Construction was cancelled due to the outbreak of World War II, and finished about a decade later. Libera was inspired bythe Pantheon, and designed the structure with a noble and elegant appearance, combining modern lines with a classical sense of grandeur. Columns and othertraditional elements are mixed with a modern, essential and geometric taste, in order to underline the pure form of the structure silhouetted against the sky.